Write an essay about the treatment of anxiety disorders.
Fear is the main cause of Anxiety. The different types of anxiety disorders include, panic disorder, generalized disorder and social anxiety disorder. According to Bandelow et al. (2022) anxiety disorders is a high burden of illness because they are the most common psychiatric disorders, and they are often undertreated. Patients suffering from anxiety disorder only seek medical attention if they high levels of distress. Bandelow et al. (2022) also stated that “anxiety disorders should be treated with psychological therapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of both” (p.1). According to Otte (2022), “anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear and subsequent avoidance, typically in response to a specified object or situation and in the absence of true danger” (p.1). Bandelow et al. (2022) also stated that “With a 12-month prevalence of 10.3%, specific phobias is the most common type of anxiety disorders. Although persons suffering from isolated P hobias rarely seek treatment; Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia is the next most common type with a prevalence of 6.0%, followed by social anxiety disorder (SAD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 2.2%)” (p.1). Thus, there should be immediate D iagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders to prevent further damage to the victim.
Women are more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety disorder as compared to Men. According to Bandelow et al. (2022), women be two times more likely to receive a D iagnosis of anxiety disorder as compared to men. Bandelow et al. (2022) also stated that specific phobia and separation disorders often start from childhood from the age of 7, social disorder starts at age 13, agoraphobia without panic attacks starts at 20 years, and panic disorder starts at 24 years. Generalized anxiety disorder is the only anxiety disorder that skill affects people aged 50 years and above. Some of the causes of anxiety disorders include stress, childhood adversity, genetic vulnerability and stress which manifest neuropsychological and neurobiological dysfunctions (Bandelow et al. (2022). “The evidence for potential biomarkers for anxiety disorders in the fields of neuroimaging, genetics, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and neurocognition has been summarized in two recent consensus papers, and despite comprehensive, high-quality neurobiological research in the field of anxiety disorders, these reviews indicate that specific biomarkers for anxiety disorders have yet to be identified” (Bandelow et al., 2022, p.1). Cognitive behavioral therapy treatment and placebo are the techniques used during T herapy to treat anxiety disorders.
Cognitive behavioral theory is one of the ways of treating anxiety disorder, and it is the psychotherapy with the highest level of positive results. CBT can be defined as the combination of cognitive and behavioral interventions guided by principles of applied science (Otte 2022). According to Otte (2022), studies have shown that CBT is effective in the treatment of A nxiety disorders in adults. Otte (2022) also stated that Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered the gold standard in the psychotherapeutic treatment of anxiety disorders, and several meta-analyses and reviews of these meta-analytic findings regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of CBT have been published in recent years” (p.1). CBT treats anxiety disorders by behavioral interventions which reduce the maladaptive and increase the levels of the adaptive ones through modifying their consequences and antecedents by behaviors that lead to new learning. “The cognitive interventions aim to modify maladaptive cognitions, self-statements or beliefs and also the hallmark features of CBT are problem-focused intervention strategies that are derived from learning theory [as well as] cognitive theory principles (Otte, 2022, p.1).
Placebo is also used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Placebo refers to a form of medicine or procedure which is prescribed to the patient for the psychological benefit rather than for the physiological effect (Carpenter et al., 2018). According to Carpenter et al. (2018), “Comparing CBT to placebo also provides a more useful estimate of the effect of CBT for providers who may be considering medication as a treatment option, as it is standard practice in medication trials to use a placebo comparator to examine treatment efficacy” (p.1). The best way to estimate the result of the treatment is using placebo for comparison; this will provide better results for the patient. “The US Food and Drug Administration will not accept noninferiority studies with active comparators for approval of new drugs, still considering placebo-controlled RCTs as the only effective method for determining efficacy” (Carpenter et al., 2018, p.1). “The present study sought to update the analysis by Hofmann and Smits (2008) with data from randomized placebo-controlled trials of CBT for anxiety-related disorders published since 2008; Such an up-to-date analysis of the efficacy of CBT is necessary to further inform ongoing debate about the efficacy of different treatment modalities and to provide evidence for researchers and policymakers about the potential utility of disseminating CBT interventions” (Carpenter et al., 2018, p.1). Thus, placebo is also used in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
In conclusion, Anxiety is common in any life stressful situation but when the feelings of anxiety become excessive, this is called anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders interfere with the victim’s dairy lives and therefore they should be treated. The treatment components of CBT include, self-monitoring the symptoms, cognitive restructuring, learning about the nature of anxiety and fear and somatic exercises. One should also ensure that they take preventive measures to avoid relapses of the anxiety disorders.
Bandelow, B., Michaelis, S., & Wedekind, D. (2022). Treatment of anxiety disorders. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience.
Carpenter, J. K., Andrews, L. A., Witcraft, S. M., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2018). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta‐analysis of randomized placebo‐controlled trials. Depression and anxiety, 35(6), 502-514.
Otte, C. (2022). Cognitive behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders: current state of the evidence. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience.