THERAPEUTIC AND NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF WIDELY GROWN UNCOMMON FRUITS FROM NANDED REGION-A REVIEW
The use of immunostimulants as an alternative to the drugs, chemicals and antibiotics currently being used to control diseases man many have focused on the use of widely grown uncommon fruits and medicinal plant as potential therapeutic measures for modulating the immune response to prevent and control diseases. The possible use of naturally available fruits such as Ziziphus Jujuba, Ramnaceae (Ber), Buchania Lanzan, Anacardeaceae (Charr,/Chironji), Coccinia Grandis, Cucurbitaceae (Tindori,Tindora), Phoenix Sylvestris, Arecaceae (Shinole,Shindi), Grewiatiliifolia vahlvar, Tiliaceae (Dhaman.), Madhuca longifolia, Sapotaceae. (Moha.), Cordia dichotoma foret Boraginaceae. (Bhokar), Aegle marmelos Corr. Rutaceae. (Beal), Diospyros melanoxylon roxb,Diospyros decandra ,Ebenaceae. (Tendu,tembhurni), Rumex vasicarius . Polygonaceae. ( Hummayd and hammad ,sour-wort), etc. has been discussed in this article. The aim of this paper is to review research currently being carried out on the widely grown uncommon fruits that have been nutritional and therapeutic value.
Key words – Nutritional value, therapeutic value, widely grown, uncommon fruits
In most developing countries the food situation is worsening owing to increasing population, shortage of fertile land, high prices of available staples & restrictions on import of the food, this has resulted in a high incidence of hunger & malnutrition, a situation in which children & women especially pregnant & lactating women are most vulnerable.
The present day need is to have information about the new food sources & exploiting the vast number of less familiar plant resources existing in the nature. There are several foods that are consumed by the people in different region on a very limited scale especially among the tribal population.
The wild fruits of many species have served as dietary staples & medicines for thousands of years, particularly in the tribal & rural areas of Nanded region of Marathwada. Certain fruits are the good sources of various nutrients especially anthocyonins, carotene, ascorbic acid & minerals. Considering their no cost production, easy availability, abundant production, they need to be popularized & recommended for commercial exploitation .If the people begin to derive an economic benefit from these wild plants, the natural environment of the area would be conserved & managed & the integrity of the food chains relationship within the ecosystem can be maintained.
Good nutrition can help to prevent disease and promote health. There are six categories of nutrients that the body needs to acquire from food protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibers,Vitaminsand minerals and water.
Food & nutritional security are key issues for human wellbeing. Researches, governments & organizations working with food & nutrition are concerned with the nutritional status of the general population especially children, pregnant women & lactating mothers in the developing countries.
In the developing countries, starch based foods are major sources which supply both energy & proteins requirements.
Thus, protein deficiency prevails among the problems recognized by food and agricultural organizations. To alleviate the situation, efforts should be focused on sustainable use of underutilized and lesser wild plant fruits as a source of nutrient supplements in enhancing food and nutrition security.
FRUITS ORIGINATED IMMUNOSTIMULANTS
Natural widely grown fruits have various activities such as antistress, growth promotion, appetite stimulation, immune-stimulation, aphrodisiac and antimicrobial properties due to the active principles such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibers, alkaloids, flavanoids pigments, phenol, terpenoids, steroids and essential oils.
1) Ziziphus jujuba, belonging to family Ramnaceae, commonly named as Ber: It was distributed all over the Nanded district. Root were used to cure cough, headache. Leaves were used as antipyretic & used in the treatment of obesity. Fruits were cooling, digestible, tonic, laxative, and a rich source of Vit–C, along with that having antibacterial, anti-inflammatory & antioxidant.
2) Buchania lanzan, family Anacardeaceae, commonly named as Charr,Chironji: It was found throughout India, Burma and Nepal (1) and in India Hingoli, Parbhani, Latur and Nanded regions of Maharashtra. The plant grows on yellow sandy loam soil used in eprosy, diuretics, haemorrhage, cardiac disease, asthama, fever. Its roots are used as antiulcer (Scholars research library)
3) Coccinia grandis L.Voigt, belonging to family Cucurbitaceae, commonly named as Tindori,Tindora: It is distributed in tropical regions of Asia, Africa and is commonly found in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Srilanka. Different parts of Coccinia grandis such as roots, leaves and fruits were used for various medicinal purposes such as wound healing, ulcer, jaundice, diabetic and antipyretic. The roots have antioxidant activity [Tamilselvan N1,] [Indo Global Journal].
Fruit of Coccinia grandis is used as vegetable when green and eaten fresh when ripened into bright scarlet colour2. Every part of this plant is used as medicine and various preparations have been mentioned in indigenous system of medicine for various skin diseases, bronchial catarrh, bronchitis and
Unani systems of medicine for ring worm, psoriasis, small pox, and scabies and other itchy skin eruptions and ulcers 3. Oil of this plant is used as an injection into chronic sinuses. The plant is used in decoction for gonnorhoeae, diabetes and also useful in dropsical condition, pyelitis, cystitis, strangury, snake bite, urinary gravel and calculi 4, 5. It is also useful to induce perspiration in fever and cures sores in the tongue 6.
It has antilithic5, hypolipidemicb 7, antimutagenic 8 and hypoglycemic activities9, 10, anti-inflamatory activity [S.V Deshpande1], antioxidant activity of leaf extract of Coccinia grandis. [ Journal of Ethnopharmacology], antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Coccinia grandis. [ Journal of applied pharmaceutical science]
4) Phoenix sylvestris, belonging to family Arecaceae, commonly named as shinole, shindi It is locally called as shindi or shindole. It was found in Nanded, Parbhani, Latur regions of Marathawada state of Maharashtra, India. Fruits are edible, juice used to relieves toothache, pain, fever and respiratory disorder, and used as nerve tonic.
5) Grewiatiliifolia vahlvar, of family Grewiatiliaceae, commonly known as Dhaman : It Is found in all districts of maharashtra state of India . Fruits are edible. It is having Antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.
6) Madhuca longifolia, belong to family Sapotaceae commonly known as Moha : This plants was found in all districts of Maharashtra except Osmanabad. Fruits and flowers are edible. They are used in treatment of diseases to skin. Syrup was used for medicinal purposes; It is also used in urine diseases and diabetes.
7) Cordia dichotoma foret f. Boraginaceae (Bhokar): It is commonly called as Bhokar .It is found in Aurangabad, Nanded, Parbhani and Osmanabad district of Mharashtra,India, Fruits are edible. The fruits are commonly used as Antiulcer, antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, hepatoprotective antidiabetic activity. Antiulcer,antimicrobial, in acutetoxity,antiinflamatory,hepatoprotective.anti-diabetic activity .
8) Aegle marmelos Corr. Rutaceae (Beal) : It is commonly called as Beal .It is found In all district of Maharashtra. Fruit pulp is edible. It is Aromatic cooling, antioxidant and antimicrobial property. it is pleasantly laxative and simple cure for Dyspepsia.
9) Diospyros melanoxylon roxb. Ebenaceae.(Tendu, tembhurni,tember):It is locally called as tendu,tembhurni or tembe.It is found in Nanded,Latur, Jalna district of Marathwada. Fruits are edible.It is having Antimicrobial property,and bark shows the antihyperglycemic activity,some species shows the significant antispasmodial effect against p.falciparum, and anti-ulcer activity.
10) Rumex vasicarius l. Polygonaceae (Hummayd and hammad ,sour-wort ) : It is found in Nanded,Hingoli,Parbhani districts of Maharashtra. Fruits are edible. It is used as cooling,laxative ,analgesic,stomachic.leaf juice is used as astringent.it is also used in the heart trouble,constipation,asthmaBronchitis and piles.
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