The Structure and Function of Cells

EUKARYOTIC CELL

DESCRIPTION/FUNCTION:

A. CELL MEMBRANE AND THE FUNCTIONS:

  1. CELL MEMBRANE
    • Also called the plasma membrane gives mechanical strength to the cell.
    • Its unique structure enables itself to serve as molecular traffic regulator.
    • It is 5 up to 10 um in thickness. It also exhibits fluid mosaic nature, seal itsef if broken.
  2. B. THE CYTOPLASM AND ITS ORGANELLES

  3. CYTOPLASM
    • A mass of jelly-like material that is somewhat grayish or colorless, translucent and viscous
    • It can change from semi solid to semi liquid.

    C. CELL ORGANELLES

  4. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
    • (ER) is the transport network for molecules targeted for certain modifications and specific destinations, as compared to molecules that will float freely in the cytoplasm.
    • ER has two forms: the rough ER and the smooth ER.
  5. RIBOSOMES
    • The ribosome is a large complex composed of many molecules, including RNAs and proteins, and is responsible for processing the genetic instructions carried by an mRNA.
    • Ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm or sometimes bind to another organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum
  6. MITOCHONDRIA
    • are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells.
    • Mitochondria have two functionally distinct membrane systems separated by a space: the outer membrane, which surrounds the whole organelle; and the inner membrane, which is thrown into folds or shelves that project inward. These inward folds are called cristae.
    • Mitochondria play a critical role in generating energy in the eukaryotic cell, and this process involves a number of complex pathways
  7. GOLGI BODIES OR GOLGI APPARATUS
    • (also called the golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. The golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for “export” from the cell.
  8. LYSOSOMES
    • are often referred to as the garbage disposal system of a cell.
    • digest foreign bacteria that invade a cell.
    • helping to recycle receptor proteins and other membrane components and degrading worn out organelles such as mitochondria. Lysosomes can even help repair damage to the plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, sealing the wound.
  9. MICROBODIES
    • Variety of organelles similar to lysosome but contains different enzymes. One of these is the glyxoxysomes present in some plant, another is peroxisomes which contain powerful oxidative enzymes.
  10. CYTOSKELETON
    • Microtubules that provide support to the internal system of cell thus, it provides support and shape.
    • Also provides pathways for certain cellular molecules to move.
  11. VACUOLES
    • Membrane- bound, fluid- filled spaces found in both animal and plant cell but bigger in plant cell.

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