The topic of the paper should cover some aspect of the broad field of Biology (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology).
It must be at least 1000 words in length (NOT including references). For maximum credit, closely follow the
instructions, as described.
Submit the paper on Canvas (Assignments). Determine the Turnitin score. The Turnitin score should be less than 20%
for maximum points!
Each section of the paper should have a title, similar to below:
Summary (approximately 100 words)
Even though the summary is positioned at the beginning of the paper, it should be the last part of the paper you
complete! All components of the paper (NOT including references) should be evident within these 100 words.
Introduction/background (approximately 300 words)
This part of the paper should contain a short history of the topic you have chosen. This may include the origins of the
name, early observations of the phenomenon, and/or important people who contributed most significantly to what is
known. You could also briefly discuss what interested you about your chosen topic.
State of the science (approximately 300 words)
In this section I expect a description of the important biological aspects of the topic. “How does it work?” Describe the
mechanism of the disease and/or the key aspects of the biology/physiology/ecology being discussed.
Future directions (approximately 300 words)
Finally, discuss the limitations of what is known about the topic and/or what scientists are trying to find out or develop.
Examples would include aspects of biology or physiology that are not understood and things being done to deal with a
Referencing (not part of the 1000 words!)
Your paper must have references! Citations in the body of the paper should adequately represent statements made in
the paper (NO LESS THAN 6 REFERENCES. USE THE STYLE DESCRIBED BELOW). They should be numbered and shown in
the Reference Section at the end of the paper in the order that it appeared (this is Vancouver system:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancouver_system). See the example below.
Body of paper
The appearance of PSA in serum represents some disruption of the prostate gland’s architecture (1). PSA continues to
be produced by prostate cancer cells at all stages of the disease (2, 3).
1. Williams, S. A., Singh, P., Isaacs, J. T., and Denmeade, S. R. (2007) Does PSA play a role as a promoting agent
during the initiation and/or progression of prostate cancer? The Prostate 67, 312‐329
2. Lilja, H. (1985) A kallikrein‐like serine protease in prostatic fluid cleaves the predominant seminal vesicle
protein. The Journal of clinical investigation 76, 1899‐1903
3. Lilja, H., Christensson, A., Dahlen, U., Matikainen, M. T., Nilsson, O., Pettersson, K., and Lovgren, T. (1991)
Prostate‐specific antigen in serum occurs predominantly in complex with alpha 1‐antichymotrypsin. Clinical
chemistry 37, 1618‐1625
Parameter Meaning Value (%)
Timeliness Emailed word file before start of class on required date 5 (10%)
Stlye/format Following the guidance outlined in the directions 10 (20%)
Content Quality of writing/storytelling (is it interesting to the grader?) 15 (30%)
Grammar/spelling No spelling mistakes! Proper sentence structure! 10 (20%)
Referencing Following the guidance outlined in the directions 10 (20%)