1. Criminal Justice and human behavior can be studied scientifically.

2. The “Chicago School” founded by Burgess and Park was influential in our understanding of why children failed in schools.

3. In deductive reasoning, one starts from a general law and applies that law to a particular instance.

4. In using scientific inquiry, in deduction we reason toward observations; in induction we reason from observations.

5. If a number of social scientists agree that a phenomenon exists, they are using intersubjective agreement for objectivity.

6. Grounded theory is used to describe the deductive method of theory construction.

7. A hypothesis is a specified expectation about an empirical reality derived from axioms.

8. A paradigm and a theory refer to two different things. The paradigm is a fundamental model or scheme that organizes our view of something.

9. Research on criminal justice policy is an example of applied research.

10. The ecological approach to understanding crime suggests that human behavior is partially the result of the physical and social environment where the behavior takes place.



1. Much of the current social science research has moved from description to:
a. exploration
b. explanation
c. understanding
d. theory
2. Much of the current research in criminal justice and criminology focuses upon which of the following?
a. basic building block of a concept
b. concept’s theoretical counterpart
c. systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular aspect of life
d. principle or law

3. Which of the following is not an example of a concept?
a. delinquency
b. peer group
c. indoor temperature
d. social disorganization

4. Which of the following constitute facts related to variables?
a. the empirical counterpart to a concept
b. variables can only be one value
c. more broad than concepts
d. cannot be observed

5. In the concentric zone theory of the “Chicago School” the zone of transition is characterized by:
a. the citizens that formed the core of morality for the city
b. the wealthiest citizens of Chicago
c. low-income immigrants from Europe initially
d. people who relocated from the suburbs

6. Observation involves all of the following except:
a. conducting experiments
b. interviewing people
c. watching people and detailing what you see
d. statistical manipulation
7. Which of the following is not an example of a type of statement?
a. laws
b. propositions
c. axioms
d. objectives

8. Socrates is mortal and observing a number of other people. All the observed people are mortals. All people are mortal. This is an example of what type of logic?
a. deductive
b. observation
c. inductive
d. hypothesis

9. Which of the following is an example of subjectivity?
a. which rap singer do you like the best
b. what was your score on your first research methods exam
c. did Judge Wilson have more mistrials than Judge Hughey
d. how much tuition does your university charge for full time students
10. Which type of research frequently involves the inductive method?
a. field research
b. experiments
c. surveys
d. use of existing data such as the Uniform Crime Reports
11. Which of the following is another word for objectivity?
a. subjectivity
b. intersubjective agreement
c. attitudes
d. religiosity

12. Which of the following is an example of a concept?
a. height
b. peer group
c. weight
d. age

13. Which of the following is an example of a variable?
a. social disorganization
b. crime
c. social class
d. annual family income
14. An axiom is a type of
a. theory
b. variable
c. statement
d. concept
15. Which of the following is not an example of a hypothesis?
a. males score higher in math than females.
b. poor children have higher delinquency rates than do middle-class children.
c. why is the sky dark at night?
d. those who study daily will have the highest grades

16. Which of the following illustrates situational crime prevention?
a. use of management, design, or the manipulation of the environment to reduce crime
b. using prison to reduce crime by keeping offenders away from the public
c. increasing police presence in high crime areas
d. offender home checks
17. Which of the following are not efforts that you can employ as situational crime prevention techniques?
a. keeping your car doors locked when you park
b. using a steering wheel lock every time you exit your car
c. call the police immediately after you realize that your car has been vandalized
d. use removable stereo systems
18. Which of the following is accurate with respect to paradigms?
a. paradigms consist of groups of hypotheses
b. paradigms are ways of organizing our views
c. paradigms are hypotheses linked in a logical framework
d. all statements are accurate

19. Research on a criminal justice related policy is an example of
a. explanatory research
b. descriptive research
c. applied research
d. exploratory research

20. In an inductive approach to policy development, the final step is
a. monitoring results
b. collecting data
c. analysis of situation
d. systematic study

21. All people are mortal, therefore Socrates is mortal is an example of which type of logic?
a. deductive
b. observation
c. inductive
d. hypothesis

22. Dr. Quinn is interested in who is least likely to show up for their trial; those who bond out of jail with the help of a bondsman or those placed in a court sponsored pre-trial release program. The results of the study indicate that those inmates released using a bail bondsmen had a lower failure to appear at trial rate than those using court sponsored pre-trial release. The findings of the study are used to close the expensive court run pre-trial release program. This study is an example of what type of research?
a. theory building
b. applied research
c. basic or pure research
d. a paradigm shift

23. Which of the following is not an example of a hypothesis?
a. there are too many inmates in America’s prisons and jails
b. a person charged with a crime is more likely to be found guilty using a court appointed attorney than a privately retained one
c. there is a relationship between being acquitted at trial and one’s perceived physical attractiveness
d. the rise in the number of minorities going to prison is the result of American’s war on drugs
24. Independent of opinion is a definition of:
a. an analysis
b. subjectivity
c. objectivity
d. a hypothesis

25. This term represents a set of concepts and the proposed relationships among these; a structure that is intended to represent or model something about the world.
a. a paradigm
b. a law
c. a theory
d. a fact
26. Which of the following best applies to the statement that science is always objective?
a. this only happens in the study of economics
b. objectivity is a matter of intersubjective agreement
c. objectivity can never happen when engaged in scientific research
d. objectivity is always present when a researcher knows all of the variables impacting their study
27. You count the number of students registered for your research methods class. This is an example of:
a. objectivity
b. subjectivity
c. intersubjectivity
d. theory

28. When the relationship between two variables is drawn from a theory, it is said to be:
a. a fact
b. a hypothesis
c. a mini theory
d. a paradigm

29. Dr. Smith is doing an observational study in a local jail and discovers that inmates who are respectful to the correctional officers get more telephone calls than inmates who are disrespectful. What technique has been employed in the study?
a. evaluation research
b. inductive logic
c. deductive logic
d. theory construction

30. The more a person drinks and drives the more likely they are to be pulled over for DUI. This is an example of:
a. a theory
b. a law
c. a hypothesis that results in a negative relationship
d. a hypothesis that results in a positive relationship

31. Conclusions drawn about the relationships among concepts, based on the logical interrelationship among the axioms is:
a. a law
b. a proposition
c. an axiom
d. a statement

32. Which of the following cannot be studied scientifically in the field of criminal justice?
a. the relationship between the number of police officers on the street and the crime rate
b. the relationship between the number of police officers on the street and citizen satisfaction
c. the role that an act of a deity plays on being arrested for a criminal offense
d. the role that age plays in slowing one’s criminal activities

33. The “Chicago School” was noted for the study of crime in various sections of the city of Chicago. Which of the following was used to study where crime happened?
a. concentric zones
b. ask people why they left Chicago for other northern cities
c. interviews with police officers
d. content analysis of newspapers

34. Which of the following cannot be studied scientifically?
a. physical attributes of humans
b. the purpose of life
c. changes in the number of elephants in the wild
d. astronomy

35. Operationalization means:
a. the part of a theory that tells us how variables are related
b. the procedures we go through to identify and measure variables
c. the procedures we go through before we can develop a hypothesis
d. the part of a theory that tells us what statistics we can use

36. Which of the following is most accurate?
a. theory must always come before observation
b. observation must always come before theory
c. theory may precede observation; just as observation may precede theory
d. theory and observation are not related

37. The primary distinction between a paradigm and theory is based on:
a. intersubjective agreement
b. a hypothesis
c. organization and structure
d. operationalization

38. Which of the following is not true concerning theory, research and policy relationships?
a. theory structures research
b. policies can be examined to determine if they accomplish their goals
c. theory should never be used to develop public policy
d. research is consulted to develop public policy

39. Which of the following characterizes the statement: “criminal justice and human behavior often can be studied scientifically”?
a. the statement is wishful thinking
b. the statement is correct
c. the statement is inaccurate
d. the statement fails to address problems in studying human behavior

40. The three main elements in the traditional model of science include theory, operationalization, and:
a. statistics
b. hypotheses
c. observation
d. conclusions

41. What is the final step in the traditional model of science?
a. operationalization
b. theory development
c. data collection
d. observation

42. The results of Burgess and Park’s study using the concentric circles in the city of Chicago resulted in:
a. the finding that where ever the poorest people live will be the least amount of crime
b. the finding that where the most wealthy people live will be the highest rates of property crime
c. the finding that the crime rate will be the highest in the area characterized by transition
d. the finding that when people move from one zone to another, they take their criminal tendencies with them

43. The concept of “observation” in the language of science means
a. looking at the world and making value judgments
b. looking at the world and making measurements of what is seen
c. looking at the world and making changes in what is seen
d. looking at the world through rose colored glasses

44. Grounded theory is used to:
a. measure how much common sense went into a specific theory
b. describe the inductive method of theory construction
c. describe the deductive method of theory construction
d. assess the elements that make up dirt

45. Which of the following is not a concept?
a. juvenile delinquency
b. peer group
c. grade in research methods
d. religiosity

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