Review of literature is an essential component of research study as it provides a broad understanding of the research problem. A review of related literature involves the systematic identification, location, scrutiny and summary of written materials that contain information on research problem (Polit and Hungler, 1998). Keeping this in mind, the investigator studied and analyzed into the accessible sources and gained in-depth understanding from the related studies about the first aid management of obstetrical emergencies.
The role of midwife is unique in the care and treatment of a mother and child. Throughout the birth process; the role is comprehensive and involves education treatment and collaboration with a more skilled medical team. The estimate of mortality due to poor delivery practices was over 110 maternal deaths/100,000 live births. About 40 -60 % of death of women aged 15- 34 years were attributed to pregnancy and childbirth. The medical complications precipitating death, haemorrhage, hypertension and infection were also major causes of mortality related to abortion. The midwife must be prepared for all emergencies, including medical factors such as obstetric complications, referral problems such as transportation, inadequacies, and belief factors such as fear of hospitals. Risk can be reduced by frequent consultations with health workers during pregnancy, using trained attendant at every birth, being aware of danger signs, spacing pregnancies over two years apart, avoiding pregnancies at young or old ages, maintaining proper nutrition and work load, and involving midwifes at all levels of care. – Kebe. Y(2000)
Obi SN, Ozumba BC..et.al (2001), conducted a retrospective study to identify the factors of unbooked obstetric emergency cases which increases the maternal mortality at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The study concludes that lack of basic education and poverty are the major identifiable risk factors. Improving health care facilities, female education and regular training courses of medical personnels will help to reduce the maternal mortality.
Ray.A. M, Salihu. H.(2004) conducted a study to review the results of 15 Traditional birth attendants(TBA) and midwife based interventions that aim to improve skilled assistance in delivery and recognition and referral of complications. Outcome measures used to evaluate the impact of the programmes varied. Five of the five programmes reviewed that evaluated the impact on maternal mortality demonstrated decline in maternal mortality ratios. Two of three studies measuring morbidity related indicators found improvement of some but not all morbidity outcomes. Six of seven showed a trend of improved referral rates. Three of three found high levels of knowledge retention among trained TBAs. Programmes with the greatest impact utilised TBAs and village midwives with multisectorial interventions. These findings suggest that TBAs and village midwives contribute to positive programme outcomes.
Sharon Maslovit, Gad Barkai(2004) conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of simulation based training programme among midwives and obstetricians in Israeli Center for Medical Simulation, United Kingdom. One hundred and sixty five samples were selected by random method. Among the samples 77 were obstetricians and 88 were midwives. Questionnaire responses showed that post-test score (79.4 ± 4.3) were more than pre-test score (70 ± 5.3). The study concluded that employing high fidelity simulations of obstetrical emergencies has great teaching and learning potential and simulation can provide a learning experience that facilitates knowledge application to midwifery practice.