Q1- Read the following two stanzas from Jabberwocky by Lewis carrolland then answer the questions that follow:

Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.


“Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The Frumious Bandersnatch!”


a- what are the function words in the  two stanzas?

b- what are the “content” words?

c- what part of speech do the content words belong to?

d- what clues help you to determine the part of speech of the content words?

e- The “content” words are non-existing but are never the less possible words. Can you take any three words and make them impossible in English?

f- what light does the stanza shed on the way language is organized into components?

g-  how do these stanzas illustrate that language is governed by rules. Can you make up three sentences that ungrammatical? Can you explain why these sentences are ungrammatical from the point of view of descriptive grammar?

h- what is the diffrernce between “function” words and “content” words? Why is this distinction important? Explain.


Q 2- the following sentences are ambiguous. Provide the two interpretation for each sentence:

a- Sweet apples and oranges.

b- Mary met a man walking along the road.

c- The design has big square and circles.

d- John loves his wife and so do I.

e- No smoking section available.

f- The lamb is too hot to eat.


Q3-  write an essay on the following topic. The length of the essay should be no more than two pages.

The teaching of English as a foreign language in China, Poland, Jordan Mali, Japan, and Greece.





* the source for  your answers should be based on what is in the book ” an introduction to language” 10th edition by: Victor Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams.  (chapter 1-5 only)

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