The purpose of this study is to give a critical analysis of the Literature, and briefly enumerate the causes, treatment, prevention and the risk factors of Pressure Ulcers (PUs). The process leading to pressure ulcer formation and early detection of individuals who are at risk of developing it for prompt prevention are paramount in this study.
Methods: The methods adopted in this dissertation involved various strategies: selecting a review topic and searching the literatures to be used. Gathering, reading and analysing the literatures. It also involved critical examination of the various causes, treatment and preventive measures.
Furthermore, it is also intended to find out the various risk factors that could lead to its emergence. On this basis, a number of research articles was examined after which their literatures were critically analysed All the literature searches were undertaken online with the aid of computer and electronic databases. Computer databases are used because they offer access to varieties of information, which could not be obtained manually.
Findings and Conclusions: This study went further to find out the effect of age and nutrition on the persistence and spread of presure ulcer. Finally, having given a critical analysis of the literatures, it summarised the findings as well as the various ways to curtail the emergence as well as improving the wellbeing of the patients with essential pressure ulcer, ie, those who by reason of underlying health conditions such as diabetes and catheterized individuals, people with profound learning disability, who could not avoid staying in one position for too long.
The impact of pressure ulcers on the quality of life of the people with learning disability cannot be overemphasised, as it can be devastating (Spilsbury et al. 2007; MEP Ltd, 2009; NHS for Scotland, 2009).
A pressure ulcer (PU) otherwise known as pressure sore, pressure damage, pressure injuries or bed sore (Spilsbury et al. 2007), is an area of the skin that has become abraded gradually due to a reduction or cessation of blood flowing through that part of the body. It is mainly as a result of continuous maintenance of same position when sitting or lying down for a long period of time, (RCN, 2005). It can also be described as a localised abrasion on the skin or the underlying tissue, in most cases over a bony prominence, due to the pressure or pressure in combination with deformation of the site; this can also be caused by friction. Based on the degree of damage, it can further be defined as partial-thickness of skin loss involving epidermis or dermis; mainly affecting the surface manifesting as a scratch, fluid-filled elevation of the skin or simply as a swollen crater (Lyder, 2010 & Guy, 2012). Furthermore, Pressure ulcer in some other cases can present as an erythematic or abnormal redness of the skin due to dilation of the blood vessels in the skin. (www.merckmanuals.com/home/heart_and_blood_vessel_disorders.html).
The reddened area remains as such for longer than 30 minutes after pressure is relieved (Barbanel, and Hagisawa, 2001).