Part V: Compound Summary
Synthesized first in 1951, Chemists Luis Miramontes, Carl Djerassi, and George Rosenkranz blended Norethindrone to be the first highly active oral progestogen in Syntex at Mexico City. Norethindrone however is not the first oral progestogen as a use in birth control and many other variations came before, examples being progesterone, ethisterone 19-norprogesterone , and 17α-methylprogesterone being in chronological order . The drug was put on the market in 1957 and was later combined with another estrogen called Mestranol to create Ortho-Novum in 1963 which happened to be the 2nd only oral contraceptive in the market. This significance of Norethindrone in history can be found that it was the first highly active oral progestogen and was used as an example to follow for later models and drugs like norethynodrel (1952), and norethandrolone.
Norethindrone consists of 3 different elements including :Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen with single, double and triple bonds occurring across the lewis structure. Norethindrone has 1 H-Bond with hydrogen and oxygen with many LDF’s and Dipole-Dipole bonds throughout the structure. Being consisted of 20 Carbon, 26 Hydrogen, and 2 Oxygen elements, the total mass of each molecule per atom being contributed to the element all together is 298.41844g/mol, Carbon has 240.215g/mol weighting the most and having the highest percentage mass with the percentage of 80.49%. The total mass contributed to Hydrogen is 16.20644g/mol with 8.78% percentage mass and lastly Oxygen has the 2nd highest contribution with it having 31.998g/mol and 10.72% of the compound.
Solubility is the ability to dissolve in a specific substance as a physical property. Solubility is important in general as it determines what type of reactant will be formed from the products that are soluble. Solubility is important in my specific compound is that my compound is taking in orally, by mouth. The aqueous solubility is important to my drug to guarantee a safe entrance from dissolving in spit and saliva present in the mouth. The general rule of solubility relates to polarity and if a nonpolar substance is present, it dissolves in another nonpolar solvent and if a polar substance is present, it dissolves in a polar solvent. My compound specifically is polar thus melting in any polar solvent like saliva. This being said, my drug compound is aqueously soluble meaning that it will dissolve in water.
The main function of norethindrone is to be used as a birth control to prevent pregnancy. The way it prevents pregnancy is that it prevents ovulation from occurring stopping the ovary from being fertilized. When interacting with other drugs norethindrone side effects can have various effects, most of them being moderate. An example of a moderate side effect from an interaction with Norethindrone is its interaction with Axotal, a commonly used product in Aspirin. Norethindrone effectivity may decrease when taking Axotal so using other birth control methods should be used to ensure the best effectivity. A more serious interaction is Norethindrone interaction with accutane, one of the most common medicines for acne. With the use of accutane while pregnant, accutane can cause life threatening birth defects that can form problems with their bone and internal structure including but not limited to the heart, skull, eyes and brain. Less serious effects by itself is an increase in acne , changes in weight, and breast pain. Norethindrone is only used as an oral contraceptive using capsules and ingestion to create the effects of the compound. The taking of norethindrone should be monitored carefully as if patients have former cases of strokes, breast cancer and miscarriages in the past, they should be given another prescription.
Norethindrone as a modern day relevance is still commonly used as a birth control however the ratings for the drugs aren’t very good. For the birth control aspect, the reviews are very positive saying that it works, however almost all of the 49 review reflect on a constant problem in excessive bleeding during their menstrual periods as well as severe pain in the breast and pelvic area with weight gain being a smaller portion of the reviews. However, the versions combined with mestranol is not very known and not commonly used compared to Norethindrone by itself.