Fluid & Electrolytes Handout
Please answer all questions in your own words. No citations are needed for this assignment as the answers are located in your textbook. Please ensure your answers are brief so they will fit inside each box.
1. Please complete the table below
|Extra cellular fluid (ECF)|
|Intracellular fluid (ICF)|
|Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)|
|Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)|
2. Which fluid makes up 2/3 of the body’s fluid?
3. What is the purpose of fluid constantly move among ICF, ECF and interstitial spaces?
4. Which fluid is more likely going to be affected by major fluid shifts such as vomiting?
5. Define the following terms
|Starling’s law of the capillaries|
6. Which gland secretes aldosterone?
7. When is the release of aldosterone triggered?
8. Which organ synthesizes ADH and which organ secretes it?
9. What triggers the release of ADH?
10. Is ADH involved in the renin angiotensin system?
11. Which gland produces and secretes cortisol?
12. What is the role of cortisol in the body?
13. How is cortisol involved in fluid balance?
14. What type of hormone is ANP?
15. Does ANP cause an increase or decrease in blood volume and B/P and how?
16. How can the nurse promote the release of ANP?
17. How is the ANP hormone involved in fluid balance?
18. How does the thirst mechanism control fluid balance?
19. Which organ controls thirst and how?
20. What is the BNP hormone and how is it involved in fluid balance?
21. Why is capillary fluid movement important in fluid balance?
|22. Fluid||Example||Uses||Nursing Implications|
|23. Condition||Assessment Early Signs||Assessment Late Signs||Type of fluid replacement|
|Fluid volume deficit|
|Fluid volume excess|
|24. Term||Signs and Symptoms||Treatment|
|Age||Risk Factors of fluid imbalance||Nursing implications|
|Infants 0 – 12 months|
|School age children|
25. Of the five age considerations in the above table, which two are most at risk for fluid imbalance and what would be your nursing considerations for these patients?
26. Which patients would be candidates for fluid restriction therapy and what other diet restrictions would be implemented to control fluid intake?
27. Which patients would be candidates for therapy to promote excretion? What type of therapy would be used and what medications can be administered to promote urinary excretion?
28. How is protein intake involved in fluid balance?
29. How would you monitor a patient on fluid balance therapy (whether fluid restriction or to promote excretion)? Give five assessment parameters e.g. assessing for dyspnea etc.
30. What is the difference between respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis?
31. What is the difference between metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis?
|32. Disorder||Clinical Manifestations||Nursing Interventions|
Interpret the following ABG results:
33. pH= 7.40 PCO2 = 39mmHG HCO3- = 25mEq/L