Finding & Addressing Threats

APA Formatting

This document has the summarized, high points of the APA format that all students need to be aware in writing papers academically. There are many more details and requirements in the APA than in this condensed version. If the item needed is not included here, please refer to the APA manual or visit the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) website for more specific information in APA formatting.

Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. Indent 5 spaces or ½ inch on the first line of every paragraph. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. There are two aspects of essay formats that you should keep in mind:

· Every other line in the entire paper will have text.

· Consistency and uniformity is essential. Every essay from each student will appear generally the same, except for specific letters and words are different.

APA Title Page

The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author’s full name, and the school’s name. Include in the header of the first page, the Running Head: and title of the paper in all capitals are placed toward the left margin, and the page number is placed toward the right margin. On the subsequent pages, the header contains the title and page number. Please note that your page number must be created with the word processor’s page number feature. If the page number is entered in manually, it will be the same number on every page rather than a page number.

APA Citations

Anytime a writer borrows an idea or quote from other source, a citation must be included in the essay. Whether it is paraphrasing or quoting, credit must be given to avoid plagiarism. APA requires the author’s name, year of publication, and page or paragraph number must be included as a citation in the paper. These three requirements can be provided in two main options:

1. The requirements are provided at the end of the material cited, and it is included in one simple parenthetical citation. (author’s last name, year, page no.) Be sure to place the period for the end of the sentence after the parenthetical citation.

For example:

The study indicated the patients recovered 47% of the time without any harmful side effects (Hunter, 2004, pp. 365).

2. The author’s name is included in the body of the sentence. The year follows the name in parentheses, and the page or paragraph number is in parentheses at the end of the material cited. For example:

Dr. Hunter (2004) performed two major clinical trials on breast cancer. The studies indicated the patients recovered 47% of the time without any harmful side effects (pp. 365).

3. When a personal interview, lecture, or seminar is used as a source in a paper, APA only requires a citation to be included in the body of the paper. Normally, the interviewee or lecturer name is included in the body of the sentence, followed by the parenthetical citation (Personal communication, date of communication). For example:

Mr. Wayne Smith (Personal communication, June 25, 2012) stated in an interview that each sample from the experiment were handled and processed separated to prevent any potential compromise of the study.

4. When using a direct quote (less than 40 words), usually the author is used in the attributive tag with date cited after the author. For example:

Wayne Smith (2012) explains, “Each sample from the experiment were handled and processed separated to prevent any potential compromise of the study.”

5. If using a block quotation (40 words or more), cite the quoted source in parentheses after the final punctuation mark. Please keep these points of block quotation in mind:

· Indent the block quote five spaces or half an inch.

· Do not use quotation marks.

· Double space the quote unless your school has a rule about single spacing block quotes.

· Do not include any additional lines or spaces before or after the block quote.

· Notice that in block quotes, the period goes before the parentheses, not after.

For example:

Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Strunk (1922) stated:

Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book, journal, brochure, or report when used in the body of the paper. Use a short title in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized in the reference list. (p. 342)

Continue here with your explanation or interpretation of the block quote. Please write how the quote supports your thesis specifically. This portion is a continuation of the original paragraph that started with Students at Nova Southeastern University.

APA References

Major points of the reference page(s) to keep in mind:

· Arrange entries in alphabetical order.

· An anonymous source is alphabetized by the word “Anonymous.”

· A source that has no author is arranged, alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

· Do not indent the first line of the reference. Indent all subsequent lines.

· Double space the entire references page.

· If references take up more than one page, do not retype the word “References” on subsequent pages.



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