a. Ewuare was the , or king, of Benin who transformed it into a large kingdom and shifted rule away from the , or council of chiefs, by establishing broad royal authority. Later, slaves were to the oba as his role expanded from a military and political leader into a spiritual leader with supernatural powers.
b. The kingdom of in Central Africa was a major partner of Portuguese slave traders during the 16th century, and thrived in the 17th century as Christian and indigenous African traditions blended.
c. The arrival of merchants, traders, and colonists from along the West and Central African coasts changed the continent drastically between 1500 and 1800. Food crops from the Americas, such as , expanded African access to nutrition. The first white proprietary colony in Africa was Portuguese-controlled , where the international slave trade quickly depopulated the region around Luanda.
a. Arab and Persian merchants traded heavily with East Africa and helped convert the coastal regions to . The most important export good from East Africa was , but the traders also bought slaves, gold, wood, and cotton cloth. These traders also contributed to , a trade language made of a blend of Bantu and Arabic influences.
b. In the 14th and 15th centuries, coastal Swahili city-states like Kilwa, Manda, Lamu, Mombasa, and were cosmopolitan trading centers.
c. Portuguese trading arrived in East Africa in the 16th century, contributing to the economic ______ of the Swahili city-states. In 1698, the Portuguese were expelled from most of East Africa by the state of on the Arabian Peninsula, which established a southern stronghold in .
a. -speaking Shona people founded a thriving civilization between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers south of the Swahili city-states. Its greatest city, known now as , reveals to archaeologists a wealthy, sophisticated society that flourished due to population growth, herding, farming, and the trade. This civilization, which likely declined because of depleted , appears to have divided into a southern kingdom, , and a northern kingdom ruled by the Mwene Mutapa (Master Pillager), .
b. The Shona kingdom conquered the northern kingdom and pushed the Portuguese out in the 1690s, but mixed-blood , of Portuguese and African descent, continued to dominate Southeastern Africa.
c. The peoples of Southwestern Africa were integrated into the economy and displaced by European colonists from after the founding of the first Cape settlement in 1652. Nomadic European herders called expanded European influence, and a new language, , emerged from the blended culture of the Cape Colony. By the 18th century, Dutch and indigenous African cultural influences in the Cape Colony were joined by new influences from colonists.