Animal Cells: Types and Functions

I chose to do my research paper on an animal cell because I thought it would be interesting to see how an animal cell works. Animal are very complex when it comes to determining where the cell is found, the function of the cell, and all the organelles names and functions. An animal cell has many contents and that’s why it’s very complex and important. The animal cell contents are cell membrane, Lysosome, nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear membrane, vacuole, mitochondria, centrosome, cytoplasm, rough er, smooth er, ribosome, and Golgi body. The cell membrane is a thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. This is also called the membrane semipermeable which means allowing some substance passing through the cell and blocking others.

The Lysosome is spherical organelles that function as a recycling center and a garbage disposal. Powerful digestive enzymes concentrated in the Lysosome break down worn out organelles and ship their building blocks to the cytoplasm where they are used to construct new organelles. Lysosomes also dismantle and recycle protein, lipids, and molecules. The digestion of a cell’s nutrients takes place here. A nucleus is a spherical body containing many organelles including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell by controlling protein synthesis and it also contains DNA chromosomes. The nucleus is also surrounded by the nuclear membrane. It is the largest organelle in an animal cell and it contains numerous strands of DNA. Long sections of eukaryotic DNA pack into the nucleus by wrapping the proteins. While the cell begins to divide, each DNA strand folds over itself several times forming a rod shaped chromosome. Another content of the animal cell is the nucleolus. A nucleolus is an organelle within the nucleus and it is where the ribosomal DNA is produced. Also I believe cells have more than one nucleolus. A nuclear membrane is a membrane that surrounds the nucleus. A vacuole is a fluid filled membrane with surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole is being filled with food that has been digested and wastes that are coming from the cell. The mitochondrion is a spherical rod shaped organelle with two membranes. The inner membrane is infolded many times forming a series of protections called cristae.

The mitochondrion converts the energy stored into the glucose in ATP. ATP stands for adenosine triphate. This molecule serves as an energy battery for countless cellular processes, including the shuttling of substances across the plasma membrane, the building and transporting of proteins and lipids, the recycling of molecules and organelles, and the dividing of cells. A centrosome is a small body located near the nucleus and it has a dense center and radiating tubes. The centrosome is where the microtubules are made. During the process of mitosis, the centrosome divided into two parts and the two parts move to opposite sides. The cytoplasm is the jelly like material outside the cell nucleus where the organelles are located. There are two types of ER.

The first type is rough ER. Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough surface and appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces in sacks called cisternae, which are sent to the Golgi body or inserted into the cell membrane. The smooth ER is a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes located in the cell’s cytoplasm. The space inside the ER is called the lumen ER. The smooth ER also transports materials through the cell. The next content is the ribosome. The ribosome is a small organelle composed of RNA and rich cytoplasmic granules that are sited of protein synthesis. The last content of the animal cell is the Golgi body. The Golgi body is a flattened, layered sac like organelle that is located near the nucleus. It also produces the membranes that surround the Lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membranes.

The overall function of an animal cell is that they are the building blocks of tissues, organs, and whole organisms. The cell also carries around DNA of an animal. The animal cell has no chlorophyll. Also the animal does not have a cell wall because the animal cell has only cell membranes that are made up of phospholipids bilayer and proteins that hold up and protect the cell and the parts of the cell animal cells are also smaller and have no permanent vacuoles. The animal cell has no cellulose and is made up of almost cytoplasm. The eukaryotic cell is a lot larger than the prokaryotic cell. The eukaryotic is different from the paralytic cell because the eukaryotic cell houses a nucleus and numerous other membrane enclosed organelles. These organelles enable specialized functions to be carried out efficiently. The building pf proteins and lipids take place in separate organelles where the specialized enzymes are located. I loved working on this research paper because it got me thinking about becoming a biologist. I thought that cells were just something in your body but now I know it’s more than that. There is a whole other world.

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