The Montreal Protocol


Exercise 1. The Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments resulted in the elimination of many ozone depleting substances. A link to the Montreal Protocol can be found on the course Webliography. Identify three other “world” agreements or agencies committed to helping the world’s resources (including plants, animals, and abiotic resources, such as gold and water). Summarize (paraphrase) benefits gained in detail and include links used.

Exercise 2. Since the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, developed countries have decreased the amount of ozone destroying substances they use tremendously. A link to the Montreal Protocol can be found on the course Webliography. Reduction by the United States has been 97%. View the following two animations. The first shows the ozone concentrations as they varied from July to December 2008; the second animation shows average concentrations of ozone over Antarctica during October — during the Southern Hemisphere spring when the ozone hole typically is at its maximum extent. The areas of least ozone are shown by blue and purple.

Ozone Concentrations July – December 2008
Click on this link to Ozone Watch to view animation from NASA.

Annual Ozone Hole as Indicated by October Ozone Concentations
Click on this link to see all October Ozone animation.

How did ozone concentrations vary between the Northern hemisphere and the Southern hemisphere during 2008?
Explain why the size of the ozone hole centered over Antarctica has increased over the past 30 years. What changes occurred since the implementation of the Montreal Protocol?

What did the Australian Olympic Committee do to protect the athletes and visitors? (List at least 3 implementations at this time concerning radiation and ozone.)
Exercise 3. The KYOTO Protocol (The United States is not a signatory) has established guidelines for the reduction of these six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).

Select three of these substances and describe their chemistry in the atmosphere over a selected country/region (your choice). Show a chemical reaction (formula) for all three; include a written summary of biotic and abiotic changes possible in that country. Include current references/links. Paraphrase or block a direct quote! Assume that your country has implemented or will implement the Kyoto Protocol.


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